a spade full of forest duff
when you live in the north american woods you learn that the forest floor is not made up of soil. or rather its top layer is not made up of soil. it is made of something called duff, which is a loose semi-deteriorated layer of leaves and roots and needles that some woodland wildflowers can only grow in. below the duff is the actual soil. but i love the concept of duff. that a unique layer of life in the forest can only live in conditions that are constantly in transition.
hardwood forest duff